|A (Retinol)||Blurred vision in early stages of toxicity; acute toxicity can cause headache, photophobia, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, drowsiness, irritability, seizures, and skin desquamation; chronic toxicity can cause erythema, eczema, pruritus, dry and cracked skin, cheilitis, conjunctivitis, palmar and plantar peeling, alopecia, and pain and tenderness in the bones of the extremities|
|B1 (Thiamine)||Tachycardia, hypotension, cardiac dysrhythmias, headache, anaphylaxis, vasodilation, weakness, and convulsions|
|B3 (Niacin)||Acute toxicity can cause prostaglandin-mediated symptoms (eg, flushing, wheezing, diarrhea); chronic toxicity can cause jaundice, abnormal liver function tests, and acanthosis|
|B6 (Pyridoxine)||Signs of sensory neuropathy (eg, paresthesias, ataxia, perioral numbness, impairment of position and vibration senses)|
|B2 (Riboflavin)||Yellow-orange urine|
|B5 (Pantothenic Acid)||Diarrhea|
|B9 (Folic Acid)||Gastrointestinal disorders, sleep problems, seizures; may interfere with some chemotherapy agents|
|C (Ascorbic Acid)||Renal colic, diarrhea, rebound scurvy in children of women taking high doses, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-associated hemolysis, dental decalcification, occult rectal bleeding, increased estrogen levels|
|D (Calciferol)||Acute toxicity can cause muscle weakness, apathy, headache, anorexia, irritability, nausea, vomiting, and bone pain; chronic toxicity can cause acute symptoms and constipation, anorexia, abdominal cramps, polydipsia, polyuria, backache, hyperlipidemia, and hypercalcemia|
|E (Tocopherol)||Acute toxicity can cause nausea, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, headache, fatigue, easy bruising and bleeding, diplopia, muscle weakness, creatinuria, and poor platelet agglutination|
|K (Phylloquinone)||Inhibits the effect of oral anticoagulants|
September 13, 2016
Problems When Patients Hide Supplements – Part 5
Part 5 of 7 parts.
Up to 60,000 cases of ingestion of toxic levels of vitamins occur annually, primarily in children who ingest the vitamins thinking they are candy. Cases are rarely fatal. Table 2 lists the known toxicities of vitamins.
Table 2. Vitamin Toxicity
Data from US Preventive Services Task Force.